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Who Is Who In Church History And The Lord's Recovery -- The Early Apostles

 
Matthew  Also called Levi, and, in Mark 2:14, the son of Alphaeus. Formerly a tax collector, later an apostle. Wrote the Gospel of Matthew in approximately 37-40 A.D. Preached in Judea, Ethiopia and Parthias, and martyred in Ethiopia circa 60 A.D.
James  A flesh brother of the Lord Jesus (Matt 13:55) and of Jude (Jude 1). An elder in the church at Jerusalem and reputed to be, with Peter and John, a pillar of the church. Wrote the Epistle of James perhaps circa 50 A.D.
Luke  A Gentile, probably an Asiatic Greek, and a physician by profession. Accompanied Paul in his ministry journey. Wrote the Gospel of Luke in 60 A.D. and Acts in 67 or 68 A.D.
Peter  Addressed himself as "an apostle of Jesus Christ," and "a slave and apostle of Jesus Christ" at the beginning of his first and second Epistles. Wrote the two Epistles [of Peter] circa 64 and 69 A.D. respectively. Formerly a fisherman in Galilee and the first one called among the twelve apostles. Reputed according to the biblical records for his Lord-given promise of becoming a fisherman of men, his three denials of the Lord, his speaking on the day of Pentecost, and his preaching of the gospel to the Gentiles in the house of Cornelius. Later preached in Asia and Rome, and martyred perhaps circa 69-70 AD.
Mark  Also called John, the son of Mary mentioned in the church at Jerusalem (Acts 12:12), and the cousin of Barnabas (Col 4:10). Ministered with Barnabas and Paul and was very close to Peter. From the early days of the church, his Gospel [of Mark] has been considered a written account of the oral presentation of Peter, which was completed circa 67-70 A.D.
Paul  Formerly called Saul, persecuted and bound those who called on the name of the Lord. Converted through the Lord's manifestation on his way to Damascus. Referred to by the Lord as "a chosen vessel to me, to bear My name before the Gentiles and kings and the son of Israel." (Acts 9:15) Made four ministry journeys, starting from Jerusalem in the east and reaching as far west as Rome. Writings include the Epistle to the Galatians (circa 54 A.D.), the First and Second Epistles to the Thessalonians (circa 54 A.D.). The First and Second Epistles to the Corinthians (circa 59 and 60 A.D.), the Epistle to the Romans (circa 64 A.D.), the Epistle to the Ephesians (circa 64 A.D.), the Epistle to the Philippians (circa 64 A.D.), the Epistle to the Colossians (circa 64 A.D.), the Epistle to Philemon (circa 64 A.D.), the First Epistle to Timothy (circa 65 A.D.), the Epistle to Titus (circa 65 A.D.), the Epistle to the Hebrews (circa 67 A.D.), and the Second Epistle to Timothy (circa 67 A.D.). Imprisoned by the persecution of Caesar Nero circa 67 A.D. and martyred shortly.
John  The apostle John, son of Zebedee, whose brother was James and whose mother was Salome. Circa 90 A.D. went into exile on the island of Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus. During the time received revelation and wrote the book of Revelation. Circa 90 A.D. wrote the Gospel of John in Ephesus, and circa 90-95 A.D. wrote the Epistle of John.
 

The Church Fathers And The Martyrs Under The Roman Persecution

 
Clement of Rome
(c. 30-96 A.D.)
  Bishop of Rome. Bore clear testimony to the doctrines concerning the Trinity, the Divinity of Christ, justification by grace and the unity of the church.
Ignatius
(35-107 A.D.)
  Bishop of Antioch. Known for his seven letters. Influential in the early church. Eventually escorted by Roman soldiers to be martyred. At his martyrdom he besought the persecutors, "Leave me to the beast, that I may by them be partaker of God."
Polycarp
(c. 69-155 A.D.)
  Instructed under the apostle John, later became a bishop of Smyrna. Often quoted scriptural verses in his writings. Combated the heretical Gnostic Marcion and called him "the first-born of Satan". Martyred at the old age of 86.
Irenaeus
(c. 130-202 A.D.)
  A disciple of Polycarp and bishop of Lyon. Wrote Against All Heresies defending the faith against Gnosticism and other heresies. Professed Christ is the last Adam in whom not only what the first Adam lost is recovered but God's purpose in man is accomplished. Explicitly stated that man becomes God in God's salvation.
Hippolytus
(160-235 A.D.)
  A pupil of Irenaeus and notable apologist. In his work Refutation of All Heresies defended vigorously against the heretical views of Sabellius. In his another work The Apostolic Tradition strived to preserve the purity of faith and the apostolic teaching.
Tertullian
(c. 100-225 A.D.)
  An African church father. A celebrated apologist whose doctrines originated from Irenaeus. In his apology Against Praxeas argued for one essence and three persons of the Trinue God. Also made a distinction between the divinity and humanity of Christ, which afterwards affected the formulation of the Nicene Creed. Combated Gnosticism (the Marcionite's doctrine) and Docetism. Debated for the Christian faith in front of the Roman government.
Pantaenus
(120-190 A.D.)
  Founder of the Alexandrian school and head of the catechetical school.
Clement of Alexandria
(155-215 A.D.)
  Born in Athens. A disciple of Pantaenus and later an eminent teacher in Alexandria. Emphatically expounded the work of the "Logos", Christ, which became the flesh.
Origen
(c. 185-254 A.D.)
  Born in Egypt. Succeeded Clement as the head of the catechetical school in Alexandria; a fertile author. One of his most famous works is the Hexapla, an edition of the Old Testament in Hebrew, Greek, Greek versions of Aquila, Symmachus, the Septuagint, and Theodotion, supplied with various expository notes. Saw the heavenly nature of the church as consisting of all those who have experienced in their lives the power of the eternal Gospel. In On Prayer argued prayer is not a " petition", but a " participation in God's life".
Athanasius
(296-373 A.D.)
  Contributed to the finalization of the Nicene Creed. Later became bishop of Alexandria. All his life was a champion of orthodoxy against Arianism, and for the deity of Christ. In his On the Incarnation of the Word of God he explicitly stated, "For He was made man that we might be made God."
The Cappadoian
Teachers
  Expounded the Trinity is "one essence in three persons".
Basil the Great
(329-379 A.D.)
  Bishop of Caesarea. Influenced by monasticism and devoted himself to live a simplified life. Excelled in the thought of Origen and opposed Arianism. Upheld the Nicene doctrines.
Gregory of Nyssa
(c. 330-390 A.D.)
  Younger brother of Basil. Bishop of Nyssa. One of the first to distinguish between Ousia (essence) and hypostasis (person) of the Trinity.
Gregory of Nazianzus
(330-394 A.D.)
  Bishop of Constantinople. An eloquent orator. Most worthy of note are his famous five Theological Addresses against the Arians.
Ambrose
(337-397 A.D.)
  Bishop of Milan who baptized Augustine. Advocated the church should stand independently of the state. Declared "the emperor was within the church and not over it".
Jerome
(340-419 A.D.)
  Born in Italy and later moved to Palestine. Dedicated his entire life to monasticism and encouraged believers to practice an ascetic living. Spent twenty years translating the Bible into Latin, the Vulgate. Wrote several volumes of commentaries on the Old Testament and the New Testament and of the church history.
Chrysostom
(346-407 A.D.)
  Bishop of Constantinople. Emphasized the Christian walks. His sermons favored the interpretation of the Bible and dwelled on practicability. Exalted monasticism, keeping virginity and chastity in his writings. Martyred.
Augustine
(354-430 A.D.)
  Bishop of Hippo in North Africa. Enthusiastic for the unity of the church. Refuted the heresy of Pelagianism. Wrote Confessions, the City of God, De Trinitate, the last one expounding the truth of the Trinity and producing a tremendous influence on Western Christian theology.
 


Christ
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The Body
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The New Jerusalem
Is the Goal

The Reformers In The Dark Ages

 
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